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terça-feira, 6 de fevereiro de 2018

Electric Motor - How to make a battery powered toy mini universal motors...






NASA WEB · Space Station Science Highlights: Week of Jan. 29, 2018

NASA astronaut Joe Acaba works with the SPHERES satellite as part of the SmoothNav investigation.
Feb. 6, 2018

Space Station Science Highlights: Week of Jan. 29, 2018

NASA astronaut Joe Acaba works with the SPHERES satellite as part of the SmoothNav investigation.
NASA astronaut Joe Acaba works with the SPHERES satellite as part of the SmoothNav investigation.
Credits: NASA
NASA astronauts Joe Acaba and Mark Vande Hei prepared for the SmoothNav investigation last week.
NASA astronauts Joe Acaba and Mark Vande Hei prepared for the SmoothNav investigation last week. This investigation develops an estimation algorithm aggregating relative state measurements between multiple, small, and potentially differently instrumented spacecraft.
Credits: NASA
Cosmonauts Alexander Misurkin (left) and Anton Shkaplerov in their Russian spacesuits before a Feb.2 spacewalk outside ISS
Cosmonauts Alexander Misurkin (left) and Anton Shkaplerov are pictured in their Russian Orlan spacesuits during a fit check ahead of a Feb.2 spacewalk for International Space Station maintenance
Credits: NASA
Last week, the crew living and working aboard the International Space Station had a busy week of science and spacewalk preparations, as well as an early Friday morning spacewalk for Russian crew members.
Crew members explored research in the fields of physical science, technology demonstrations and human research. Take a more detailed look at some of the science that happened last week aboard your orbiting laboratory:
Crew prepares ELF for upcoming operations
The Electrostatic Levitation Furnace (ELF) is an experimental facility designed to levitate, melt and solidify materials by container-less processing techniques using the electrostatic levitation method. With this facility, properties of high temperature melts can be measured, and solidification from deeply undercooled melts can be achieved. 
Last week, the crew moved samples to prepare for upcoming ground commandedoperations. Results from this investigation may contribute to the development of containerless processing technology, benefiting manufacturers and scientists designing new materials.
Crew conducts trial run for SmoothNav investigation
Many future space exploration and space-based business enterprise models, such as on-orbit satellite servicing, on-orbit assembly, and orbital debris removal, necessitate the use of fully autonomous multi-satellite systems. Smoothing-Based Relative Navigation (SmoothNav) develops an estimation algorithm aggregating relative state measurements between multiple, small, and potentially differently-instrumented spacecraft.
The algorithm obtains the most probable estimate of the relative positions and velocities between all spacecraft using all available sensor information, including past measurements. The algorithm remains portable between different satellite platforms with different onboard sensors, adaptable in the case that one or more satellites become inoperable, and tolerant to delayed measurements or measurements received at different frequencies.
Last week, the crew set up the work area to activate and check out the hardware before conducting a trial run.
Investigation tests lighting aboard space station
Anyone who uses electric lights can benefit from lights that can be adjusted for intensity and wavelength across the day, improving alertness during waking hours and promoting sleep during evening hours. The Lighting Effects investigation studies the impact of the change from fluorescent light bulbs to solid-state light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with adjustable intensity and color and aims to determine if the new lights can improve crew circadian rhythms, sleep and cognitive performance.
Last week, the crew conducted a visual performance test by stowing the hardware in their crew quarters, setting the light to the correct mode, turning all other light sources in the crew quarters off, and performing a color discrimination test. 

NASA WEB ·Europe Nears 10 Years at Station; Crew Studies Mice and Plants

Europe Nears 10 Years at Station; Crew Studies Mice and Plants


NASA astronaut Rex Walheim works outside Europe’s new Columbus lab module shortly after it was installed in February of 2008.
The International Space Station program is getting ready to recognize the 10th in year in space of its Columbus lab module from the European Space Agency (ESA). The Expedition 54 crew members, meanwhile, spent the day helping scientists on the ground understand the impacts of living in space.
ESA is getting ready to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the launch ofColumbus. The European lab module blasted off inside space shuttle Atlantis on Feb. 7, 2008, for a two-day ride to the station. Canadarm2, the station’s robotic arm, removed Columbus from Atlantis’s cargo bay two days after its arrival and attached it the starboard side of the Harmony module.
A month after the installation of Columbus, ESA launched its first resupply ship to the station. The “Jules Verne” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-1) lifted off March 9, 2008, atop an Ariane-5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana. The ATV-1 then took a month-long ride for a series navigation tests before to automatically docking to the station.
Astronauts Scott Tingle and Norishige Kanai continued studyingmice on the space station for a drug study to potentially improve muscle health in microgravity and despite a lack of exercise. The rodents are housed in a special microgravity habitat for up to two months with results of the study helping scientists design therapies for humans with muscle-related ailments.
Flight Engineer Mark Vande Hei set up botany gear in the Columbus lab module for the Veggie-3 experiment. The long-running plant study is exploring the feasibility of harvesting edible plants such as cabbage, lettuce and mizuna for consumption during spaceflight. Samples are returned to Earth for analysis.

domingo, 20 de agosto de 2017

NASA WEB ·PRESERVING THE STRESS OF VOLCANIC UPRISE ON MARS

Thaumasia mountains

PRESERVING THE STRESS OF VOLCANIC UPRISE ON MARS

10 August 2017
An ancient mountain range on Mars preserves a complex volcanic and tectonic past imprinted with signs of water and ice interactions. 
Thaumasia mountain range in context
The images, taken on 9 April by the high-resolution stereo camera on ESA’s Mars Express, show the Thaumasia mountains and Coracis Fossae, which fringe the huge Solis Planum volcanic plateau from the south.
The region lies to the south of the vast Valles Marineris canyon system and towering Tharsis volcanoes, and is strongly linked to the tectonic stresses that played out during their formation over 3.5 billion years ago.
As the Tharsis bulge swelled with magma during the planet’s first billion years, the surrounding crust was stretched, ripping apart and eventually collapsing into troughs. While Valles Marineris is one of the most extreme results, the effects are still seen even thousands of kilometres away, such as in the Coracis Fossae region observed in this image where near-parallel north–south faults are visible primarily to the left.
Thaumasia mountain topography
Tectonic structures like these can control the movement of magma, heat and water in the subsurface, leading to hydrothermal activity and the production of minerals.
Perspective view of crater in Thaumasia mountain range
Light-toned deposits, which might be clay minerals formed in the presence of water, stand out in the right part of the colour image and at the rim of the large crater. Similar deposits were identified in the nearby Lampland crater.
There is also evidence for valley formation by groundwater erosion and surface runoff occurring at the same time as when the active tectonics shaped the landscape. The water-based erosion means the troughs have been partially buried and heavily modified.
The region was later modified by glacial processes, seen in the flow-like lineated patterns in the flat floors of the large craters.
As a representative of the ancient highlands of Mars, this region holds a wealth of information about the Red Planet’s geological history.
Thaumasia mountains in 3D

quinta-feira, 3 de agosto de 2017

NASA WEB ·SPACE-Elon Musk Says SpaceX's First Falcon Heavy Launch Will Lift Off in November

Elon Musk Says SpaceX's First Falcon Heavy Launch Will Lift Off in November

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SpaceX's new megarocket, the massive Falcon Heavy, will make its launch debut in November, according to the company's founder and CEO Elon Musk.
In Twitter and Instagram statements late Thursday (July 27), Musk announced the fall target for the Falcon Heavy's maiden flight.
"Falcon Heavy maiden launch this November," Musk wrote on Twitter. He did not reveal a specific target date for the launch, though it is expected to fly from Pad 39A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. SpaceX leases the pad from NASA and has been using it for Falcon 9 rocket launches. [SpaceX's Falcon Heavy Rocket in Pictures]
SpaceX's Falcon Heavy is a heavy-lift rocket that will stand 230 feet tall (70 meters) and be capable of lofting payloads of up to 60 tons (54 metric tons) into low-Earth orbit, and up to 24 tons (22 metric tons) into a geostationary transfer orbit. The rocket will be the most powerful U.S.-built rocket since NASA's Apollo-era Saturn V moon rocket, SpaceX representatives have said. 
The Falcon Heavy is based on SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket and uses two Falcon 9 first stages strapped to a central core (itself a modified Falcon 9 booster). Like the Falcon 9, which can launch into orbit and land its first stage back on Earth for later reflight, the Falcon Heavy is designed to be reusable. 
Earlier this month, Musk dampened expectations for the Falcon Heavy's first launch. Speaking July 19 at the International Space Station Research and Development conference in Washington, D.C., Musk said there was a "real good chance" the Falcon Heavy wouldn't make it to orbit.  
"I hope it makes it far enough away from the pad that it does not cause pad damage. I would consider even that a win, to be honest," Musk said during the conference. 
 
Earlier this year on March 30, Musk said the first Falcon Heavy will use two previously flown Falcon 9 first stages. SpaceX test fired the first Falcon Heavy core stage in May.
Musk added on July 19 that designing the rocket was much more difficult than he expected, but he is confident that it will eventually prove to be "a great vehicle," despite any early hurdles with the first test flight. And the first test flight should be something to see, he said. 
"I encourage people to come down to the Cape to see the first Falcon Heavy mission," Musk said, referring to Cape Canaveral. "It's guaranteed to be exciting."