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terça-feira, 23 de dezembro de 2014

NASA WEB · MERRY CHRISTMAS




sábado, 20 de dezembro de 2014

NASA WEB ·SETI Institute Earth From Space: Celebrating 15 successful years of the Earth Observing System, NASA collected 15 impressive, awe-inducing or simply just plain interesting images.



Earth From Space: Celebrating 15 successful years of the Earth Observing System, NASA collected 15 impressive, awe-inducing or simply just plain interesting images.


Earth From Space: Celebrating 15 successful years of the Earth Observing System,  NASA collected 15 impressive, awe-inducing or simply just plain interesting images. More: http://buff.ly/1zK0LQk

NASA WEB · NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration The sun emitted a mid-level flare on Dec. 18, 2014, at 4:58 p.m. EST. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured this image showing the bright spot near the center of the sun. SDO observes light in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths that can highlight the intense heat present in a solar flare.

The sun emitted a mid-level flare on Dec. 18, 2014, at 4:58 p.m. EST. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured this image showing the bright spot near the center of the sun. SDO observes light in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths that can highlight the intense heat present in a solar flare.  Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth's atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground, however -- when intense enough -- they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel.  This flare is classified as an M6.9-class flare. M-class flares are a tenth the size of the most intense flares, the X-class flares. The number provides more information about its strength. An M2 is twice as intense as an M1, an M3 is three times as intense, etc.   Image Credit: NASA/SDO
The sun emitted a mid-level flare on Dec. 18, 2014, at 4:58 p.m. EST. NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory, which watches the sun constantly, captured this image showing the bright spot near the center of the sun. SDO observes light in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths that can highlight the intense heat present in a solar flare.
Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth's atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground, however -- when intense enough -- they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel.
This flare is classified as an M6.9-class flare. M-class flares are a tenth the size of the most intense flares, the X-class flares. The number provides more information about its strength. An M2 is twice as intense as an M1, an M3 is three times as intense, etc.
Image Credit: NASA/SDO

NASA WEB · The giant star Zeta Ophiuchi is having a "shocking" effect on the surrounding dust clouds in this infrared image from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope. Stellar winds flowing out from this fast-moving star are making ripples in the dust as it approaches, creating a bow shock seen as glowing gossamer threads, which, for this star, are only seen in infrared light.

The giant star Zeta Ophiuchi is having a "shocking" effect on the surrounding dust clouds in this infrared image from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope. Stellar winds flowing out from this fast-moving star are making ripples in the dust as it approaches, creating a bow shock seen as glowing gossamer threads, which, for this star, are only seen in infrared light.
Zeta Ophiuchi is a young, large and hot star located around 370 light-years away. It dwarfs our own sun in many ways -- it is about six times hotter, eight times wider, 20 times more massive, and about 80,000 times as bright. Even at its great distance, it would be one of the brightest stars in the sky were it not largely obscured by foreground dust clouds.
This massive star is travelling at a snappy pace of about 54,000 mph (24 kilometers per second), fast enough to break the sound barrier in the surrounding interstellar material. Because of this motion, it creates a spectacular bow shock ahead of its direction of travel (to the left). The structure is analogous to the ripples that precede the bow of a ship as it moves through the water, or the sonic boom of an airplane hitting supersonic speeds.
The fine filaments of dust surrounding the star glow primarily at shorter infrared wavelengths, rendered here in green. The area of the shock pops out dramatically at longer infrared wavelengths, creating the red highlights. A bright bow shock like this would normally be seen in visible light as well, but because it is hidden behind a curtain of dust, only the longer infrared wavelengths of light seen by Spitzer can reach us.
Bow shocks are commonly seen when two different regions of gas and dust slam into one another. Zeta Ophiuchi, like other massive stars, generates a strong wind of hot gas particles flowing out from its surface. This expanding wind collides with the tenuous clouds of interstellar gas and dust about half a light-year away from the star, which is almost 800 times the distance from the sun to Pluto. The speed of the winds added to the star’s supersonic motion result in the spectacular collision seen here.
Our own sun has significantly weaker solar winds and is passing much more slowly through our galactic neighborhood so it may not have a bow shock at all. NASA’s twin Voyager spacecraft are headed away from the solar system and are currently about three times farther out than Pluto. They will likely pass beyond the influence of the sun into interstellar space in the next few years, though this is a much gentler transition than that seen around Zeta Ophiuchi.
For more updates on Astronomy and Space Exploration, follow us atAstronomy Today.
The giant star Zeta Ophiuchi is having a "shocking" effect on the surrounding dust clouds in this infrared image from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope. Stellar winds flowing out from this fast-moving star are making ripples in the dust as it approaches, creating a bow shock seen as glowing gossamer threads, which, for this star, are only seen in infrared light.  Zeta Ophiuchi is a young, large and hot star located around 370 light-years away. It dwarfs our own sun in many ways -- it is about six times hotter, eight times wider, 20 times more massive, and about 80,000 times as bright. Even at its great distance, it would be one of the brightest stars in the sky were it not largely obscured by foreground dust clouds.   This massive star is travelling at a snappy pace of about 54,000 mph (24 kilometers per second), fast enough to break the sound barrier in the surrounding interstellar material. Because of this motion, it creates a spectacular bow shock ahead of its direction of travel (to the left). The structure is analogous to the ripples that precede the bow of a ship as it moves through the water, or the sonic boom of an airplane hitting supersonic speeds.   The fine filaments of dust surrounding the star glow primarily at shorter infrared wavelengths, rendered here in green. The area of the shock pops out dramatically at longer infrared wavelengths, creating the red highlights. A bright bow shock like this would normally be seen in visible light as well, but because it is hidden behind a curtain of dust, only the longer infrared wavelengths of light seen by Spitzer can reach us.   Bow shocks are commonly seen when two different regions of gas and dust slam into one another. Zeta Ophiuchi, like other massive stars, generates a strong wind of hot gas particles flowing out from its surface. This expanding wind collides with the tenuous clouds of interstellar gas and dust about half a light-year away from the star, which is almost 800 times the distance from the sun to Pluto. The speed of the winds added to the star’s supersonic motion result in the spectacular collision seen here.   Our own sun has significantly weaker solar winds and is passing much more slowly through our galactic neighborhood so it may not have a bow shock at all. NASA’s twin Voyager spacecraft are headed away from the solar system and are currently about three times farther out than Pluto. They will likely pass beyond the influence of the sun into interstellar space in the next few years, though this is a much gentler transition than that seen around Zeta Ophiuchi.  For more updates on Astronomy and Space Exploration, follow us at Astronomy Today.  #Spitzer #Telescope #Share #FollowUs #PicoftheDay #Space #Exploration #Astronomy #Astronomer #Astrophysics #NASA #NASASocial #Cosmos #Universe #Awesome #Incredible #OMG

NASA WEB · Best Space Pictures of 2014: A year's delights courtesy of starry nights. Enjoy!

Best Space Pictures of 2014: A year's delights courtesy of starry nights. Enjoy!


Best Space Pictures of 2014: A year's delights courtesy of starry nights. Enjoy! http://buff.ly/1AxJA2t

NASA WEB · SETI Institute NASA "emailed" a wrench to space



NASA "emailed" a wrench to space


NASA "emailed" a wrench to space. #3Dprinting #ISS http://buff.ly/16AULyk

NASA WEB · SETI Institute Mars Methane: Life at Last? NASA reports at the AGU meeting that Curiosity has detected spurts of the gas in the planet's atmosphere, a reversal from the disappointing negative result last year. Read SETI Institute's Seth Shostak's take on the latest discovery



Mars Methane: Life at Last? NASA reports at the AGU meeting that Curiosity has detected spurts of the gas in the planet's atmosphere, a reversal from the disappointing negative result last year. Read SETI Institute's Seth Shostak's take on the latest discovery


Mars Methane: Life at Last? NASA reports at the AGU meeting that Curiosity has detected spurts of the gas in the planet's atmosphere, a reversal from the disappointing negative result last year. Read SETI Institute's Seth Shostak's take on the latest discovery: http://buff.ly/1x68dG5

terça-feira, 16 de dezembro de 2014

NASA WEB · Astronomy Now ‏Há 2 horas Immortalise your favourite writer, artist or composer by naming a crater after them! http://

Immortalise your favourite writer, artist or composer by naming a crater after them!


NASA WEB · TDIH 1992: Galileo spacecraft looked 6.2 mil km (3.9 mil mi) to capture view of Moon & Earth:

TDIH 1992: Galileo spacecraft looked 6.2 mil km (3.9 mil mi) to capture view of Moon & Earth:


NASA WEB · Name That Crater On Mercury! MESSENGER Team Opens Public Contest

@NASADISCOVERY2
Há 32 minutos
Name That Crater On Mercury! MESSENGER Team Opens Public Contest

NASA WEB · NASA WEB · NASA Voyager: 'Tsunami Wave' Ainda voa através Interstellar

NASA WEB · NASA Voyager: 'Tsunami Wave' Ainda voa através Interstellar

DIA EM REVISTA
NASA Voyager: 'Tsunami Wave' Ainda voa através do espaço interestelar
• A sonda Voyager 1 passou por três ondas de choque
• A onda de choque mais recente, observada pela primeira vez em fevereiro de 2014, ainda parece estar acontecendo
• Uma onda, relatado anteriormente, ajudou os pesquisadores a determinar que a Voyager 1 entrou espaço interestelar
O "tsunami" que a Voyager 1 da NASA começou a sentir no início deste ano ainda está a propagar para fora, de acordo com novos resultados. É a onda de choque de mais longa duração que os pesquisadores viram no espaço interestelar.
"A maioria das pessoas teria pensado que o meio interestelar teria sido suave e silencioso. Mas essas ondas de choque parece ser mais comum do que pensávamos", disse Don Gurnett, professor de física na Universidade de Iowa, em Iowa City. Gurnett apresentou os novos dados segunda-feira, dezembro 15, na reunião da União Geofísica Americana em San Francisco.
A "onda tsunami" ocorre quando o sol emite uma ejeção de massa coronal, jogando fora uma nuvem magnética de plasma de sua superfície. Isto gera uma onda de pressão. Quando a onda colide com o plasma interestelar - as partículas carregadas encontradas no espaço entre as estrelas - uma onda de choque resultados que perturba o plasma.
"O tsunami faz com que o gás ionizado que está lá fora para ressoar -" cantar "ou vibrar como um sino", disse Ed Stone, cientista do projeto para a missão Voyager baseado no California Institute of Technology, em Pasadena.
Um clipe de áudio com uma representação gráfica está disponível online em:
Esta é a terceira onda de choque que Voyager 1 tenha experimentado. O primeiro evento foi em outubro-novembro de 2012, e a segunda onda em abril-maio ​​de 2013 revelou uma densidade de plasma ainda maior. Voyager 1 detectou o evento mais recente, em fevereiro, e que ainda está em curso a partir de dados de Novembro. A nave espacial foi movido para fora 250 milhões milhas (400 milhões de quilômetros) durante o terceiro evento.
"Este evento notável levanta questões que irão estimular novos estudos sobre a natureza dos choques no meio interestelar", disse Leonard Burlaga, emérito astrofísico da NASA Goddard de Voos Espaciais Tripulados Center em Greenbelt, Maryland, que analisou os dados do campo magnético que foram fundamentais para esses resultados .
Não está claro para os pesquisadores que a longevidade incomum desta onda particular pode significar. Eles também são incertos quanto à rapidez com que a onda está se movendo ou quão ampla uma região que abrange.
A segunda onda tsunami ajudou os pesquisadores a determinar em 2013 que a Voyager 1 tinha deixado a heliosfera, a bolha criada pelo vento solar que engloba o sol e os planetas do nosso sistema solar. Mais densas de plasma "anéis" em uma freqüência maior, e o meio que Voyager voaram through, era 40 vezes mais denso do que o que havia sido previamente avaliados. Isso foi fundamental para a conclusão de que a Voyager havia entrado uma fronteira onde nenhuma nave espacial tinha ido antes: o espaço interestelar.
"A densidade do plasma é superior a Voyager vai mais longe," disse Stone. "Isso é porque o meio interestelar é mais denso como Voyager se afasta da heliosfera, ou é da própria onda de choque? Nós não sabemos ainda."
Gurnett, investigador principal do instrumento de ondas de plasma na Voyager, espera que tais ondas de choque propagam longe no espaço, talvez até o dobro da distância entre o Sol e onde a espaçonave está agora.
Voyager 1 e seu irmão gêmeo, a Voyager 2, foram lançadas 16 dias apart em 1977. Ambas as sondas voou por Júpiter e Saturno. Voyager 2 também voou por Urano e Netuno. Voyager 2, lançado antes Voyager 1, é a mais longa operado continuamente nave espacial e está prevista para entrar no espaço interestelar dentro de alguns anos.
JPL, uma divisão da Caltech, construiu a nave espacial Voyager gêmeo e opera-los para a Divisão de Heliofísica dentro Ciência Mission Directorate da NASA em Washington.
Para obter mais informações sobre a missão Voyager, visite:

NASA WEB ·NASA Voyager: 'Tsunami Wave' Still Flies Through Interstellar

DAY IN REVIEW
NASA Voyager: 'Tsunami Wave' Still Flies Through Interstellar Space
• The Voyager 1 spacecraft has experienced three shock waves
• The most recent shock wave, first observed in February 2014, still appears to be going on
• One wave, previously reported, helped researchers determine that Voyager 1 had entered interstellar space
The "tsunami wave" that NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft began experiencing earlier this year is still propagating outward, according to new results. It is the longest-lasting shock wave that researchers have seen in interstellar space.
"Most people would have thought the interstellar medium would have been smooth and quiet. But these shock waves seem to be more common than we thought," said Don Gurnett, professor of physics at the University of Iowa in Iowa City. Gurnett presented the new data Monday, Dec. 15 at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco.
A "tsunami wave" occurs when the sun emits a coronal mass ejection, throwing out a magnetic cloud of plasma from its surface. This generates a wave of pressure. When the wave runs into the interstellar plasma -- the charged particles found in the space between the stars -- a shock wave results that perturbs the plasma.
"The tsunami causes the ionized gas that is out there to resonate -- "sing" or vibrate like a bell," said Ed Stone, project scientist for the Voyager mission based at California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
An audio clip with a graphical representation is online at:
This is the third shock wave that Voyager 1 has experienced. The first event was in October to November of 2012, and the second wave in April to May of 2013 revealed an even higher plasma density. Voyager 1 detected the most recent event in February, and it is still going on as of November data. The spacecraft has moved outward 250 million miles (400 million kilometers) during the third event.
"This remarkable event raises questions that will stimulate new studies of the nature of shocks in the interstellar medium," said Leonard Burlaga, astrophysicist emeritus at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, who analyzed the magnetic field data that were key to these results.
It is unclear to researchers what the unusual longevity of this particular wave may mean. They are also uncertain as to how fast the wave is moving or how broad a region it covers.
The second tsunami wave helped researchers determine in 2013 that Voyager 1 had left the heliosphere, the bubble created by the solar wind encompassing the sun and the planets in our solar system. Denser plasma "rings" at a higher frequency, and the medium that Voyager flew through, was 40 times denser than what had been previously measured. This was key to the conclusion that Voyager had entered a frontier where no spacecraft had gone before: interstellar space.
"The density of the plasma is higher the farther Voyager goes," Stone said. "Is that because the interstellar medium is denser as Voyager moves away from the heliosphere, or is it from the shock wave itself? We don't know yet."
Gurnett, principal investigator of the plasma wave instrument on Voyager, expects that such shock waves propagate far out into space, perhaps even to twice the distance between the sun and where the spacecraft is right now.
Voyager 1 and its twin, Voyager 2, were launched 16 days apart in 1977. Both spacecraft flew by Jupiter and Saturn. Voyager 2 also flew by Uranus and Neptune. Voyager 2, launched before Voyager 1, is the longest continuously operated spacecraft and is expected to enter interstellar space in a few years.
JPL, a division of Caltech, built the twin Voyager spacecraft and operates them for the Heliophysics Division within NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington.
For more information on the Voyager mission, visit:

quinta-feira, 11 de dezembro de 2014

NASA WEB · Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - although it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy.

Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - although it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy.
In this image, a 30-min VLT/NACO K-band exposure has been combined with archive HST/ACS B and I-band images to produce a three-color image of the 'Bird' interacting galaxy system. The NACO image has allowed astronomers to not only see the two previously known galaxies, but to identify a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to form stars at a frantic rate.
We want to thank all of our followers of this page. We reached 70,000 followers earlier today in only eight short months, almost to the day. We started the page on April 10th, 2014. This is a testament of all of us on Earth that know the universe is vast, and the stars are here to teach us, and the planets are there for us to explore! What lies beyond our solar system?
New Horizons reaches Pluto on July 14th, 2015! We will see what this planet holds as its secrets! We have put astronauts on the moon and we will put them on Mars in the next decade! We have rovers on Mars that are sending back data as we speak. Think what we have accomplished in aviation and in space in the last century alone, our first century of exploration! We are still in that first century and we have so much more to do and to learn.
We need our governments, all of them around the world to know that space research, education, and exploration is critical to our survival. Knowledge is everything and without the stars and the universe, we wouldn't exist today.
Here's to reaching 100,000 followers in record time! Please help us reach more by sharing all of our posts, liking them, and commenting on them. Please share our page link with your friends and family by copying this link and placing it as a status update on your Timeline and letting your friends know to like our page and to push astronomy and space exploration to everyone that you know! Together we can ALL make a difference! Link to post: https://www.facebook.com/AstronomyTDY
For more updates on Astronomy and Space Exploration, follow us atAstronomy Today.


Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - although it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy.  In this image, a 30-min VLT/NACO K-band exposure has been combined with archive HST/ACS B and I-band images to produce a three-color image of the 'Bird' interacting galaxy system. The NACO image has allowed astronomers to not only see the two previously known galaxies, but to identify a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to form stars at a frantic rate.  We want to thank all of our followers of this page.  We reached 70,000 followers earlier today in only eight short months, almost to the day.  We started the page on April 10th, 2014.  This is a testament of all of us on Earth that know the universe is vast, and the stars are here to teach us, and the planets are there for us to explore!  What lies beyond our solar system?    New Horizons reaches Pluto on July 14th, 2015!  We will see what this planet holds as its secrets!  We have put astronauts on the moon and we will put them on Mars in the next decade!  We have rovers on Mars that are sending back data as we speak.  Think what we have accomplished in aviation and in space in the last century alone, our first century of exploration!  We are still in that first century and we have so much more to do and to learn.    We need our governments, all of them around the world to know that space research, education, and exploration is critical to our survival.  Knowledge is everything and without the stars and the universe, we wouldn't exist today.    Here's to reaching 100,000 followers in record time!  Please help us reach more by sharing all of our posts, liking them, and commenting on them.  Please share our page link with your friends and family by copying this link and placing it as a status update on your Timeline and letting your friends know to like our page and to push astronomy and space exploration to everyone that you know!  Together we can ALL make a difference!  Link to post:  https://www.facebook.com/AstronomyTDY  For more updates on Astronomy and Space Exploration, follow us at Astronomy Today.  #Universe #Cosmos #Telescope #ESO #VLT #TinkerBell #Disney #Dreams #Star #Stars #Sky #Space #Exploration #Share #Astronomy #Astronomer #Astrophysics #NASA #NASASocial #FollowUs #PicoftheDay

NASA WEB ·NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration We're knocking on Pluto's doorstep. Join a Google+ Hangout Wednesday at 4 p.m. EST on our New Horizons mission. New Horizons is on approach for a dramatic flight past the icy dwarf planet and its moons in July 2015.



We're knocking on Pluto's doorstep. Join a Google+ Hangout Wednesday at 4 p.m. EST on our New Horizons mission. New Horizons is on approach for a dramatic flight past the icy dwarf planet and its moons in July 2015. For more information, visit: http://bit.ly/NH_Hangout
We're knocking on Pluto's doorstep. Join a Google+ Hangout Wednesday at 4 p.m. EST on our New Horizons mission. New Horizons is on approach for a dramatic flight past the icy dwarf planet and its moons in July 2015. 

NASA WEB · A galactic hotbed of gases and dust churn brightly in the night sky as newborn stars are in the process of being born. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured this spectacular view of galaxy NGC4102, known as a LINER galaxy for emitting a particular type of radiation. Pretty stunning, wouldn't you agree?




A galactic hotbed of gases and dust churn brightly in the night sky as newborn stars are in the process of being born.   NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured this spectacular view of galaxy NGC4102, known as a LINER galaxy for emitting a particular type of radiation.  Pretty stunning, wouldn't you agree? http://1.usa.gov/1scA1Xy

NASA WEB ·Study Eyes Influence of Religion on Future Space Exploration Research by a political science professor shows opinions on space exploration are influenced by a person's religious beliefs.


Research by a political science professor shows opinions on space exploration are influenced by a person's religious beliefs.


NASA WEB ·Comet watchers will soon find a special gift this holiday season. Get ready to spot Comet Lovejoy Q2, now bright enough to spot in a pair of 10×50 binoculars.

Comet watchers will soon find a special gift this holiday season. Get ready to spot Comet Lovejoy Q2, now bright enough to spot in a pair of 10×50 binoculars.

Foto: Comet watchers will soon find a special gift this holiday season. Get ready to spot Comet Lovejoy Q2, now bright enough to spot in a pair of 10×50 binoculars. Learn more: http://buff.ly/130hq5R

NASA WEB · Newborn stars in the Rho Ophiuchi star-forming region as seen in the infrared by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The youngest stars, the reddest ones in the image, are surrounded by disks of dust and gas from which planetary systems are possibly forming. New observations of the light variability from these young stars confirm that probably all of them have clumpy dust disks.

Newborn stars in the Rho Ophiuchi star-forming region as seen in the infrared by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The youngest stars, the reddest ones in the image, are surrounded by disks of dust and gas from which planetary systems are possibly forming. New observations of the light variability from these young stars confirm that probably all of them have clumpy dust disks.


Foto: Newborn stars in the Rho Ophiuchi star-forming region as seen in the infrared by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The youngest stars, the reddest ones in the image, are surrounded by disks of dust and gas from which planetary systems are possibly forming. New observations of the light variability from these young stars confirm that probably all of them have clumpy dust disks.   Read more at: http://buff.ly/1D19wsz

NASA WEB · Astronomers identify gas spirals as a nursery of twin stars through ALMA.

Astronomers identify gas spirals as a nursery of twin stars through ALMA.

Astronomers have found spiral arms of molecular gas and dust around the "baby twin" stars, binary protostars. Gas motions to supply materials to the twin were also identified. These observational results unveil, for the first time, the mechanism of the birth and growth of binary stars, which are ubiquitous throughout the universe

Foto: Astronomers identify gas spirals as a nursery of twin stars through ALMA.  Astronomers have found spiral arms of molecular gas and dust around the "baby twin" stars, binary protostars. Gas motions to supply materials to the twin were also identified. These observational results unveil, for the first time, the mechanism of the birth and growth of binary stars, which are ubiquitous throughout the universe: http://buff.ly/164oUpG